Intellectual Disability

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Translations of the Criteria for Intellectual Disability

In 2019, the members of the AAIDD International Interest Network initiated a project to translate the three-pronged definitional/diagnostic criteria for intellectual disability into languages other than English.

AAIDD thanks those who performed the translations and those who reviewed the translations for fidelity.


Mohammed S. Alshuayl, MEd, Taif University, Saudi Arabia
Shoroq O. Alkhattabi, MEd, Umm Al-Qura University, Saudi Arabia
Mshael D. Althiab, MEd, Majmaah University, Saudi Arabia
Rashed Fehaid A., MEd, Prince Sattam Bin Abdul-Aziz University, Saudi Arabia

Chinese (Traditional)

Chun-yu (Caya) Chiu, PhD, FAAIDD, National Taiwan Normal University

Jos Van Loon, PhD, University College, Ghent/E-QUAL, The Netherlands, and
Ilse Goethals, PhD, University College, Ghent/E-QUAL, The Netherlands

Giulia Balboni, PhD, FAAIDD, University Of Perugia, and
Alice Bacherini, University Of Perugia

Mayumi Hagiwara, MS, University of Kansas

Hyojeon Seo, PhD, Kongju National University, South Korea, and
Chung eun Lee, MA, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Cristina Simões, MA, University College, Ghent

Elena Morgacheva, PhD, Moscow City Teachers Training University    

Laura Gómez, PhD, Universidad de Oviedo
Cristina Mumbardó, PhD, Universitat Ramon Llull

Reviewers:  Aesha John, Cristina Simões, Mayumi Hagiwara, Giulia Balboni, Laura Gómez, and Cheng eun Lee

**Please note that with the 12th edition of its manual in 2021, the age of onset is defined as "before the age of 22." These translations were created using the age of onset criteria of the 11th edition of the manual.**

Poster:  Tell me About ID: Making the Definition of Intellectual Disability Accessible Around the World. (2019). AAIDD International Interest Network.

ID in Arabic (2019)

ID in Chinese (2019)

ID in Dutch (2019)

ID in Italian (2019)

ID in Japanese (2019)

ID in Korean (2019)

ID in Portuguese (2019)

ID in Russian

ID in Spanish (2019)